1. Training guidelines
a. Train specifically
b. Train Functionally
c. Overload gradually
2. Program Development Guidelines
a. Prioritize your training
b. Periodize your program
c. Establish training blocks
i. Early – establish baseline
ii. Middle – increase cardio endurance and strength
iii. Late – Enhance mental toughness and stamina; peak and taper
iv. In-season – maintain performance level
v. Post-season – Focus on imbalances developed from sport-specific activities
vi. Off-season – train weak points
d. Adhere to the 5-15 percent rule – only add 5-15 percent load at each session, if that – rigorous or focused should be on the 5% and seated, supported activities stay under 15%
e. Adequate recovery time: high intensity, resistance, and hilly terrain needs a recovery day. These can include walking, swimming, dancing, easy biking, yoga, yard work.
i. 48 hours between strength workouts
ii. Strength should be less than one hour
f. Modify your plans if your RHR is+/- 5 beats or more or if you are extremely sore, sluggish, or in pain
g. Overtraining looks like: slowed performance and recovery times, altered sleep patterns, weakness, muscle soreness, or lack of enthusiasm.
3. Program Adaptation
a. Tracking progress –
i. Daily conditions
1. Date and time of workout
2. Amount and quality of sleep
3. Waking RHR
4. Any aches or discomfort
ii. Strength Workouts
1. Type of exercise, duration, intensity
2. Avg, max, and recovery HR
3. How you feel before, during, and after workouts.
iii. Cardiovascular Workouts
1. Type, duration, intensity
2. Avg, max, and recovery HR
3. How feel before, during, after workouts
4. Discomfort or PR
b. Adaptation cues-
i. gradual trend toward increased fitness
ii. RHR drops
iii. More energy after workouts
iv. More distance at a given length of time
4. Increasing Endurance
a. FITT components
1. RHR average for 3 days, Then 208-.7(age) gives theoretical MHR
2. MHR-RHR = HRR (hear rate reserve)
3. Target training rate = HRR by .65 and .75 for target training zone for cardio
4. Recovery = 65% or less
5. Distance = 65-75%
6. Tempo (speed at less than 45 min duration) = 75-85%
7. Anaerobic = 85-95% (hard intervals up to 2 min with recovery
iii. Time of Training
1. The higher the intensity, the shorter the duration
2. Include varied (and proper) zone training
a. 4 sessions of cardio should allow for target activity in all four sessions with sufficient recovery time
b. Activities lasting longer than 1 minute become cardio
c. Aerobic tolerance should be distance with 5-10 minute warmups
i. Increase gradually until you can stand constant exertion for 30 min or more, then you can follow the 5-15% rule
ii. If you have to reduce your pace to a walk or easy stride change, you are still spending increased time on the activity and building tolerance.
iii. As fitness increases, you’ll be able to sustain the pace and tolerate higher heart rates
iv. Recovery workouts should be a short workout at low heart rate followed by stretching. Waiting several days for soreness to abate sets you back a whole week.
v. Tempo workouts differ in that the segments are shorter.
d. Anaerobic tolerance is what happens when your body runs out of stored fuel (20 seconds to 2 min) and you have to reduce exertion.
i. You can begin work here ONLY after you have a solid month of building aerobic tolerance. You can then add weekly workouts (two for advanced goals).
ii. Fartlek – bursts of speed and recovery lasting random durations. Throw in different movements. Vary number, duration and frequency according to how you feel, not according to a plan.
iii. Uphill – train to peak HR and then recover before repeating. Warm up 5-10 min. Repeat 5-6 times. Feel winded at the top but ready to go at the bottom.
iv. Pyramid – short intervals that lengthen and then shorten.
v. Repeats – set time, set distance. Lengthen work intervals and shorten recovery.
vi. Tabata – This is the most intense. Do it once or twice a week to improve aerobic power and anaerobic capacity increase across all training.
vii. You can do this one to two times a week for several months up to the goal event. These should last no longer than half the time of an endurance workout.
viii. Each time you do an anaerobic session, try to increase performance. Heart monitors are great for that.
2. Maximizing strength
a. FIIT Parameters
i. Frequency of Training
1. Full body – 2-3 full body sessions are optimal and allow for sufficient recovery. Change variables ever 3-6 weeks as body adapts
2. Upper body – by splitting the body into halves, you can train 3x a week (alternating parts). If you’re doing a long endurance day, you may do workouts like this before the session.
3. Thirds – upper body push; upper body pull; and lower body/core. Keeps it interesting.
1. Limit training intensities of 5RM (reps max) or heavier for a particular muscle group no more than 5-7 days. Train to failure in 5 reps approx, but leave a 1-3 rep reserve so you’re able to train more in other ways
a. The more sets you complete with heavy weights and lower reps, the stronger you become.
b. Should not take longer than an hour
i. Exercise selection
1. Free weights and cables over machines
2. Unilateral movements such as one-leg deadlift or step up for half of your lower body exercises and a combination of uni-lateral or bilateral dumbbell exercises such as one-arm dumbbell row and overhead press for upper body.
3. Pick exercises that engage more of your body whenever possible
4. Train muscles you cannot see: triceps, glutes, hamstrings, back
5. Full body workouts should include one exercise for upper-body push, one for upper-body pull, and one for lower-body movement.
ii. Weight selection
1. When starting an new exercise, select a weight you are certain you can lift and try a few reps. If your goal is 2 sets of 10-12 reps, try a few light sets of 4-6 reps as warm ups
iii. Sets and Repetition
1. Remember that the more reps per set, the fewer sets
2. You can train your upper body and lower body differently (endurance vs strength)
3. If you are doing plyo (explosive) – do more sets of fewer reps
4. If your form starts to degrade, stop the set. REMAIN UNDER CONTROL
5. Rest Intervals – Alternate exercises to cut rest intervals in half
iv. Developing your own program
1. Priority training
a. Importance – what’s the most functional?
b. Balance – do early because you’ll suffer more toward the end of your workout
c. Weakness – complete these early, too because you’ll fall apart
d. Muscles used – engage large muscle groups before small ones as you’ll use the small ones in the large group, too
e. Imbalances – do minimal work for overdeveloped areas
2. Timing –
a. You need at least 20 min twice a week for results
b. Do not do spinal flexion unless you’ve been up for 1-2 hours
v. Combining Strength and Aerobic training
a. Determine what your priority is (strength vs endurance), and do the one that’s highest priority
a. Guidelines – if you feel a surge of energy after eating pasta followed by lethargy or still hungry after eating a big meal, you may convert food to energy quickly and you might do better with high protein and fat. If you’re sluggish after a steak and salad, you may convert food slowly and do better on carbs.
i. Eat frequently
ii. Choose foods in their natural state
iii. Eat protein with every meal
iv. Eat veggies with every meal
v. Watch Glycemic Index
vi. Eat a variety of food
vii. Drink lots of water
viii. Balance fat intake (between saturated, mono, and poly)
ix. Adjust nutrition to training – protein shake during and after can help
x. 10% cheat for goodies
b. Workout nutrition
i. To get nutrients into the system quickly, use fluids rather than eat solids
ii. 30 g carbs for women and 40 g carbs for men
iii. Half during and then half after
1. Eat foods with fiber
2. Eat food that takes more work to digest
3. Watch sugars
4. Cooking and precooking raises GI
5. Watch out for “enrichment” – it’s not a whole, natural food
v. Fat – Fat is essential and should be 20-40% of your calories
vi. Fluids – 2-4 L of water a day, you can have an electrolyte drink on hot, long distance days only and eat salty snacks and fruits
vii. Protein – .8 g per lb of body weight per day for endurance and strength training. About 25% of daily diet.
1. Fish, wild game, grass-fed beef, eggs, milk, and poultry
c. Goal guidelines
i. Maintenance –
1. Protein, calcium, iron, and Vitamins E & C
2. Maintaining energy: complex carbs – constant supply 50-60% of your diet
ii. Fueling for long workouts:
1. Gatorade or the like + protein in a water bottle throughout the event.
2. Longer than 2 hours? Bananas, carbohydrate gels, dried fruit, jerky, orange sections or hard candies and licorice
3. Longer than 2.5 hours? Include protein – tuna or turkey sandwiches, bagels with cream cheese, string cheese, trail mix with nuts
iii. Reducing body fat while maintain muscle
1. Burn an additional 250 cal a day and decrease calories by 250
2. Cheat meals should be used to elevate leptin levels and release body fat
3. Start with a fat-burning plan for the first few weeks while reducing calories and incorporate HIIT workouts to boost metabolism. Then shift to regular calories and work on low GI foods while sustaining endurance workouts.
iv. Supporting effort at high altitude – high carb low fat diet is most comfortable. 4,000 calories a day AT LEAST at high altutitude with 50-60% carbs. Women use more carbs at altitude.